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Mengetahui Fungsi Tutup radiator

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Setiap kendaraan mobil pastinya memiliki tutup radiator atau Radiator Cup. Benda ini kecil bentuknya namun fungsinya sangat luar bisa. Jika terjadi kegagalan atau kerusakan pada benda ini akibatnya bisa sangat fatal. Sebab fungsi utama dari tutup radiator adalah menutup lubang pengisian coolant atau air radiator. Disamping fungsi utamanya, tutup radiator memliki fungsi tambahan yang jauh lebih kompleks dibandingkan fungsi utamanya. Yaitu sebagai penjaga tekanan didalam ruang sirlkulasi air dan sebagai pengatur aliran air dari dan menuju tabung reservoir.

Tutup radiator, sangat berfungsi dalam menjaga tekanan di dalam ruang sirkulasi air atau coolant. Tekanan tertinggi yang diperbolehkan didalam ruang sirkulasi dibutuhkan agar titik didih air dapat di tinggikan. Misalnya : titik didih normal air pada tekanan udara ambient normal adalah 100o C , akan tetapi dengan adanya tekanan yang lebih tinggi di dalam ruang sirkulasi maka temperatur dapat mencapai angka yang lebih tinggi sebelum air radiator mendidih dan menguap dari mesin. Sebagai contoh kita ambil saja contoh extreme, dengan adanya tekanan 0.9 bar didalam ruang sirkulasi air maka air dapat mencapai angka 120o C.

Lalu kenapa temperatur tinggi diharapkan didalam ruangan sirkulasi air ?.. Nah hal ini sesuai dengan prinsip perpindahan kalor yaitu dengan semakin besarnya perbedaan temperatur (delta T) maka akan semakin banyak kalor yang dapat dipindahkan. Apabila temperatur air di radiator mencapai 120o C sedangkan temperatur udara di luar tetap 30o C maka kalor yang dipindahkan dari radiator ke udara akan lebih besar dibandingkan jika air radiator hanya bertemperatur 100o C dan temperatur udara di luar radiator tetap 30o C.

Inilah yang menunjukkan mengapa mesin akan lebih efisien bila dalam kondisi panas. Tutup radiator dalam hal ini bergungsi sebagai pressure valve . Yaitu menjaga tekanan di dalam ruang sirkulasi air tetap pada tekanan yang di inginkan. Biasanya di atas tutup radiator terdapat angka 0,9 atau 1,2 itu merupakan indikator tekanan yang harus dipertahankan di dalam ruangan sirkulasi air dalam satuan Bar.

Apabila tekanan didalam ruangan sirkulasi air sudah melebihi tekanan set, maka pegas dari pressure valve akan tertekan ke atas, kemudian akan terbuka ruangan yang menghubungkan antara ruang sirkulasi air dengan ruang reservoir sehingga tekanan dapat dikurangi sekaligus volume air yang mengalami expansi akibat pemanasan dipindahkan ke reservoir.

Saat mesin mati atau mesin mengalami pendingian begitu juga dengan air radiator maka akan mengalami pendinginan, sebagai akibat volume air akan mengalami penyusutan atau berkurang. Efek samping dari adanya penyusutan volume air maka akan terjadi ke vakuuman di dalam ruang sirkulasi air. Saat terjadi kevakuuman di ruang sirkulasi air maka klep tutup radiator bagian tengah yang kecil akan membuka maka ruang sirkulasi air dan reservoir akan terhubung kembali dan sebab adanya vakuum di ruang sirkulasi air maka air akan mengalir kembali dari tabung reservoir ke ruang sirkulasi. Klep kecil ditengah tutup radiator ini di sebut vacuum valve sebab bekerja pada saat ke vakuuman terjadi di ruang sirkulasi air.

Nah dapat Anda bayangkan jika tutup radiator yang anda miliki gagal dalam melaksanakan tugasnya sebagai pressure valve atau vacuum valve. Kegagalan tutup radiator dalam menjalankan fungsinya dapat diakibatkan usia tutup radiator yang sudah cukup tua sehingga pegas-pegas yang berfungsi sebagai pengatur fungsi valve sudah tidak bekerja sesuai dengan spec, atau juga bisa diakibatkan korosi dan kotoran atau endapan air radiator yang terdapat di tutup radiator menghambat kerja pegas. Selain itu tutup radiator yang imitasi dan dengan kualitas rendah juga sangat rentan kegagalan dalam melakukan fungsi pressure valve dan vacuum valve

Masalah-masalah yang timbul akibat kegagalan fungsi dari tutup radiator antara lain :

  • Fungsi Pressure Valve : Apabila terjadi kegagalan fungsi maka tutup radiator tidak dapat menjaga tekanan tinggi didalam ruang sirkulasi, dan sebagai akibatnya air di ruang sirkulasi akan cepat mendidih (boil) dan berubah menjadi uap air yang dapat dengan mudah lolos dari ruang sirkulasi air sehingga air radiator kerap berkurang padahal mesin kita tidak bermasalah dan indikator temperatur juga tidak menunjukan panas yang significant. Dan sebaliknya jika tekanan yang berlebih di dalam ruang sirkulasi tidak dapat di release/ di lepas ke udara melalui reservoir maka di dalam ruang sirkulasi air akan terjadi tekanan tinggi di luar kemampuan parts-parts kendaraan kita. Yang terjadi adalah indikator temperatur akan menunjukan “hot ” , parts-parts yang tidak tahan terhadap tekanan tinggi akan mengembang dan akhirnya meletus/meledak atau bocor seperti selang radiator, seal waterpump bocor bahkan radiator itu sendiri yang bocor.
  • Fungsi Vacuum Valve : Jika terjadi kegagalan fungsi ini maka tutup radiator tidak dapat membuka ketika terjadi pendinginan di dalam ruang sirkulasi air, hal ini mengakibatkan air dari tabung reservoir tidak dapat masuk kembali ke ruang sirkulasi air. Ketika dingin dan kita check volume air radiator akan terlihat berkurang padahal temperatur pada indikator temperatur biasa-biasa saja. Sedangkan volume air di tabung reservoir akan penuh terus dan bahkan luber.

Nah jika kita lihat dari fungsi-fungsi diatas, tutup radiator sangat memegang peranan penting dalam hal pendinginan mesin. Memang jika dilihat dari bentuknya yang kecil dan cukup sederhana kita tidak akan menyadarinya.

Saran : Jika anda ingin membeli tutup radiator, pastikan tekanan yang diperbolehkan oleh specifikasi mobil anda sesuai dengan yang tertera pada tutup radiator. Tidak semua mobil sama tekanan tutup radiatornya. Pada umumnya untuk kendaraan Jepang lawas rata-rata menggunakan 0,9 bar. (suk.030)

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